EES409: Tropical Weather and Climate

        [Cr:4, Lc:3, Tt:1, Lb:0]

Course Outline

Overview of Tropical Meteorology:
Solar energy, Vertical structure of the tropical at- mosphere (convection, planetary boundary layer, Radiative convective equilibrium), The global energy balance, Scales of tropical weather systems (meso, synoptic and planetary scales), Tropical Climatology

Tropical Circulations:
Zonally averaged tropical Circulation, Theory of the Hadley and Walker cells, Zonally asymmetric features of the tropics, Longitudinal dependence of the circulation in the Tropics-macroscale circulations, The intertropical Convergence Zone and associated concepts, Trade wind inversion, Moisture distribution in the tropical atmo- sphere, pressure and precipitation distribution, Air masses and fronts: sources, origin and classification and associated weather systems

Tropical Monsoons:
Global perspective of monsoonstheories, Monsoon intraseasonal oscil- lations, Mechanism for temporal scale selection and propagation, Large scale Jet streams and their characteristics, Easterly waves, tropical depressions, Continental Tropical Con- vergence Zone, Regional characteristics of monsoon system

Tropical Cyclones:
Structure and Mechanisms Life cycle, surface and upper air struc- tures, budgets of momentum and energy, formation and movement variability of hurricane intensity, Impact of global warming on the frequency of tropical cyclones

Tropical Climate Drivers and teleconnection processes:
Madden Julian Oscillations (MJO), El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO), El Nino Modoki, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Quasi- Biennial Oscillation (QBO), Climate sensitivity and feedbacks

Dynamics of Tropical Atmosphere:
Scale analysis of tropical motions, cumulus convection and convective heating, scale interaction in the tropics

Recommended Reading