**[Cr:4, Lc:3, Tt:1, Lb:0]**

- Introduction to Lasers: Principles of laser action, threshold criteria, building blocks of a laser, Basic properties of laser light, coherence, directionality, photon flux, Lasers and Masers, Survey of laser applications.
- Atom-Field interaction: Einstein's A and B coefficients, Coherent and incoherent emissions, three-level and four level schemes, Rate equation model for laser, Optical pumping.
- Gaussian beam and Optical resonators: Propagation of Gaussian beam, ABCD Matrix, linear and ring resonators, Confocal cavity, stability analysis of cavity, cavity modes, quality factor.
- Types of Lasers: Gas lasers: CO and Ar-ion, Liquid dye laser, Solid state lasers (Ruby laser, Nd:YAG), semiconductor lasers, edge emitting and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, Pulsed laser operation, Q-switching, saturable absorption, mode locking, Ultrafast lasers.
- Nonlinear Optics: Polarization properties of lasers, Jones Matrix formalism, Nonlinear effects, second harmonic generation, Kerr effect, Pockel effect, self focusing and defocusing, Optical isolators.
- Topics in Advanced Optics: Semiclassical theory of laser, Correlation function and coherence concepts, Photon statistics in cavities, one atom laser, Laser cooling and trapping of atoms, Introduction to optical lattices and atom optics.

- A. E. Siegman, Lasers, University Science Books (1986).
- K. K. Sharma, Optics, Principles and applications, Academic Press USA (2006).
- J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, 03rd edition, Prentice Hall, (1995).
- K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak, Lasers: Theory and Applications, Springer (1981).
- M. Sargent III, M.O. Scully and W.E. Lamb, Jr., Laser Physics, Westview Press (1978).
- L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics, Cambridge University Press (1995).
- B. B. Laud, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics, John Wiley & Sons Inc. (1985).
- C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon-Interactions: Basic Processes and Applications, Wiley-Interscience NY (1998).