**[Cr:4, Lc:3, Tt:1, Lb:0]**

Knowledge of the content of **PHY635** is
essential to follow this course.

- Expansion of the Universe, Friedman-Robertson-Walker-Lemaitre model, Geodesics and Distance, geodesic deviation, Standard candles and Standard Rulers.
- Standard cosmological model: radiation dominated era, matter domination, dark energy and accelerated expansion. Horizon problem, flatness problem. Inflationary paradigm.
- Thermal history of the universe, primordial nucleosynthesis, decoupling of neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles, electron-positron annihilation, matter radiation decoupling, last scattering surface, cosmic microwave background radiation.
- Scalar fields in an expanding universe. Generation of perturbations in inflation, Tensor and Scalar perturbations, Reheating.
- Perturbations in an expanding universe. relativistic perturbation theory, growth of perturbations in different scenarios. Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Transfer Functions, Baryon Acoustic oscillations,
- Sachs-Wolfe and Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect, Silk damping, The observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and its relation with Cosmological Parameters, Observational constraints.
- Models of dark energy, observational constraints on models of dark energy.
- Late time perturbations, geometric effects, redshift space distortions.

- T. Padmanabhan, Theoretical Astrophysics, Vol.III: Galaxies and Cosmology, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- S. Weinberg, Cosmology, Oxford University Press, 2008.
- Ruth Durrer, The cosmic microwave background, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
- Scott Dodelson, Modern Cosmology,Elsevier, 2005.